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Advanced Card Technology - Glossary of Terms

A 
AAC Application Authentication Cryptogram  
ABM Automated Banking Machine  
ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene. Plastic material used to make many integrated circuit cards. Unlike PVC, it is formed through injection molding which allows the dimensions of the card and the hole into which the chip module is inserted to be precisely controlled.  
AC Application Cryptogram  
ADF Application data file ISO
  application definition file
AEF Application Elementary File  
AID Application Identifier  
an Alphanumeric  
ans Alphanumeric special  
ANSC American National Standard Committee  
ANSI American National Standards Institute  
API Application Program Interface  
APDU Application Protocol Data Unit  
ARQC Authorization Request Cryptogram  
ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit  
ASN Abstract Syntax Notation  
ATC Application Transaction Counter  
ATR Answer to Reset  
Acceptor Party who accepts a payment card for provision of goods and services and presents transaction data to a Acquirer.  
Access Card A machine-readable card used to achieve computer access, physical entry or passage.  
Access Control Any measure designed to ensure that access to a resource is obtained only by authorized users.  
Account A business relationship involving the exchange of funds, value, or credits.  
Acoustic Coupler A low speed modem which converts digital signals to and from audible analogue form for transmission via an ordinary telephone handset.  
Acquirer A financial institution which acquires transaction data from a card acceptor and enters the transaction data from a card acceptor and enters the transaction into the relevant payment system.  
ADF Allocation The secure provision of space in the IC for subsequent use by an application supplier. ISO
ADF Personalizer The entity which initially loads security and related operational parameters in the space allocated in the IC for an ADF. ISO
Administrative Services Only(ASO) An arrangement where an organization will perform specific administrative functions relating to healthcare programs such as claims processing for self-insured groups or third party providers/payers for a fee.  
Advanced card Any card applying technology that is more advanced than magnetic stripe cards.  
Affinity Card A special issue of a financial transaction card whose cardholders are members of a particular group or organization with which a card issuer has negotiated an agreement for the issue. The card issuer often pays the organization a royalty and holders of the card form a “niche membership” usually benefiting from enhancement services associated only with that card. Sometimes the card bears the logo of the issuer and of the organization, an arrangement call “co-branding”.  
Algorithm A set of rules specifying the procedures to perform a specific computation.  
Alpha Test The initial trial run of a new program, system or hardware within the organization that developed it. See Beta Test.  
Alphageometric A Videotext display technique that produces smoother and more elaborate graphics than Alphamosaic. Geometric instructions are transmitted to the terminal or computer.  
Alphamosaic A Videotext display technique that divides the screen into a invisible grid and accepts signals instructing how each square is filled in, as if creating a mosaic.  
American National Standards Committee(ANSC) A committee of ANSI.  
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) The national standards setting body in the USA  
Annual Fee A fee paid by a cardholder for the privilege of holding a financial transaction card and using it to buy goods and services. With some cards the cardholder pays interest and no fee. Some cards charge both fees and interest.  
Antiope A protocol developed by the French. It uses alphamosaic configuration.  
Application A commercial use or purpose for using a device, e.g. and integrated circuit card used for transfer, inquiries, credits, etc.  
Application Data File (ADF) A file in the IC that supports one or more services ISO
Application Definition File (ADF) See application data file EMV
Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) A computer chip designed with special features to satisfy particular requirements. In the integrated circuit card context, an ASIC generally refers to chips with special “cells” for functions such as security (exponentiation used in public key cryptography) or communications (radio frequency).  
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit An integrated circuit designed for a specific application. Such circuits are widely used in integrated circuit cards and their interface devices.  
Application Supplier An entity which is responsible for an ADF after its allocation. ISO
Area 1 Part of the embossing area reserved for identification of the card issuer and cardholder (defined in ISO 7811)  
Area 2 Part of the embossing area provided for cardholder identification data such as name and address (defined in ISO 7811)  
Artificial Intelligence Information processing by mimicking or simulation of cerebral nervous or cognitive processes  
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange - The protocol used by most small computers. It assigns a seven-bit code to 96 printable characters, and 32 control characters. The acronym is so widely accepted that the full name is unrecognizable to many.  
Assembler Short for assembly code, a form of programming language permitting direct manipulation for machine memory or registers, also used to mean the processor which translates assembly code into executable code.  
Asymmetric Algorithm An algorithm in which the encipherment and decipherment keys are different and which is computationally unfeasible to deduce one from the other. ISO
Asymmetric Key Cryptography See Public Key Cryptography and Encryption.  
Asynchronous Not synchronous. The most common data transmission method for small computers.  
Asynchronous Password Generation A method of generating a unique one-time password for a computer user based on a challenge-response sequence between a host and a device possessed by the user.  
Asynchronous Transfer Mode A very high speed fast-packet transmission protocol. It is capable of interface speeds from 50 Mbps to 24 Gbps  
Audit San examination of records or accounts to verify their accuracy and status.  
Audit/Journal Printer The printer which records all transactions as they occur and provides an audit trail.  
Authenticate To prove identity or origin.  
Authentication A process used to ensure data integrity and data origin authentication ISO
Authentication Routine A process used to validate a user, card, terminal or message contents. Also known as a handshake, the authentication uses important data to create a code that is verified in real time or batch mode.  
Authorization Call A telephone call made from a “Point of Sale” or “Point of Service” to obtain authorization for a transaction.  
Authorization Message Within a payment system, any message between a card acceptor and a card issuer serving to establish where the issuer approves for a transaction to proceed.  
Authorization Terminal A terminal permitting authorization of a transaction but not necessarily capturing the transaction data into a payment system.  
Authorization The approval of guarantee given by a Issuer to an Acquirer and/or Acceptor to honor a transaction.  
Authorization Code A specific value issued an stored with the transaction data to allow confirmation that a valid authorization occurred.  
Automated Banking Machine (ABM) North American term corresponding the “Automatic Teller Machine”  
Automated Clearing House An organization that handles automated payments, e.g. direct debits, standing order payments, direct payroll deposits and other electronic credit transfer, and to consolidate provider billings for healthcare claims across multiple payers.  
Automated Outdoor Card Terminal An unattended terminal situated out of doors.  
Automatic Fuel Vending System for dispensing and accepting payment for fuel.  
Automatic Issuing Machine A machine which records information on a blank identification card before its issue to the cardholder. Some issuing machines only write information on magnetic tracks, others carry out embossing too.  
Automatic Teller Machine A self-service unit that allows, with a suitable identification and account relationship, financial transactions, e.g. a cash withdrawal. In telecommunications context, asynchronous transfer mode.  
Automatic Ticket and Boarding Pass Machine A machine at a airport which accepts a “Financial Transaction Card”, enable the cardholder to purchase an airline ticket and issues both the ticket and the boarding pass.